A trillion eggs are eaten every year around the world. Illustration: Joe Magee
” I looked into how incredibly unsustainable animal agriculture is- it really blew my intellect ,” he says , noting that a trillion eggs are eaten every year around the world.” There are more chickens in the US than people, each confined to the area of a piece of paper and never find daylight .”
Elizondo’s company has rendered animal-free egg white in the lab and is now working on scaling up and putting products on sale by the end of 2019. He says the GM yeast technique has a decades-long track record:” Insulin[ for diabetics] used to come from pigs, you’d kill them and extract the pancreas .” Now it is all made from yeast, as is the rennet used to make most cheese, which once was extracted from the stomach of baby cows.
Milk is being targeted by Tim Geistlinger, chief technology officer at
Perfect Day in Silicon Valley, who says stimulating real dairy products without cows may once have appeared mad. But the company has already made yoghurt, cheese and ice cream in their labs:” When people think you are crazy, that’s nice, because it allows you to think differently .”
Sweets and makeup are being targeted across the bay at the start-up
Geltor in San Leandro, where microbes are being put to work to replace the animal products gelatin and collagen. The company has performed stunts like constructing gummy bears from gelatin derived from the preserved DNA of mastodons– an extinct elephant-like creature- and growing a leather book binding in the lab. Its first product, launching in April, is for cosmetics.
” Collagen is often the only animal-derived product in cosmetics ,” says Nick Ouzounov, a co-founder of Geltor, with most of it coming from pigs.” I guess a lot of people overlook that .” The traditional process of extracting collagen and gelatin has only one” extreme yuk factor”, he says:” Skin, bones and cartilage goes into an acid bath for days until the tissues disintegrate .”
But although strictly plant-based replacings for meat and dairy are improving fast, can they ever genuinely taste as good the real thing, and become the first choice of regular customers? Taste has to be the most important factor, argues Tetrick.
” The common denominator between all the folks in the world is they like food that savors good- Donald Trump voters, Bernie Sanders voters, Vladimir Putin voters ,” he says.” If you can’t attain food that is good for the planet, and maybe a little bit healthier, also savour really good, then all of this applies to merely 1% of the population. And if it only applies to 1% of the population, then there is zero chance it will actually solve the problem .”
Just is also pursuing the major slaughter-free alternative- real meat grow from cells in the lab.” My personal sentiment is that, of the $1.1 tn of meat that is bought every year, the vast majority of it will not be solved by veggie burgers and veggie nuggets. As much as I might want that to be true, I don’t think it is .”
Lab-grown meat, dubbed” clean meat” due to its lack of microbial or antibiotic contamination, has yet to arrive on the market. But at least a dozen companies are working on it and Just could be the first, having said they will launch an “avian” product by the end of 2018, rumoured to be a replacement for foie gras pate which is now illegal in the US.
Beef, chicken and duck are being developed by Memphis Meats, seen as the clean meat leader and backed by food commodity giant Cargill among others. Steve Myrick, a vice-president at the company, says:” We very much recognise that the world loves meat and feeing it is deeply culturally ingrained. We are not activists. We just want to induce meat that is better .”
clean meat burger was created by a Dutch academicat Maastricht University back in 2013. Prof Mark Post , now also head of spin-off company Mosa Meats, is glad other numerous companies have jumped up:” Before I was the only one. I was lonely and wondering if I was crazy .”
But even with the head start, the burgers he hopes to be selling in two to three years will be expensive to start with, perhaps EUR6 per 100 g. The key obstacle, say most clean meat companies, is developing an affordable and animal-free growth medium: the current standard is very expensive and requires growth promoters extracted from bovine embryos.
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Alelph Farms is working on lab-grown mince meat and other companies such as Finless Foods are creating clean– with no mercury or plastic contamination though white fish still costs about $7,000 per pound to produce at the moment.
Even if these new technologies does develop to produce delicious, affordable and sustainable food, the potential” yuk factor” of tech-created food hangs heavy over the embryonic sector. Food journalist
Joanna Blythman recently criticised the Impossible Burger:” It’s the very antithesis of local food with a transparent provenance and backstory. It’s patently the brainchild of a technocratic mindset, one brought to us by food technologists and scientists whose natural environment is the laboratory and the factory- not the kitchen, farm or field .”
But this is the wrong problem, argues Patrick Brown, founder of
Impossible Foods and a Stanford University professor.” Currently we create that hemeprotein by trashing the planet by encompassing it with millions of cows. We need to use every tool at our disposal to deal with this environmental catastrophe. It is not how you do it- it is what you do .”
These products, say their backers, are intended to replace mass-produced animal products , not local organic ones.” From our perspective, health is not the point ,” says Bruce Friedrich, at the Good
Food Institute, which supports the alt-protein sector.” These products are for people who currently eat industrially created meat .”
” I don’t think mayonnaise, even ours, is healthy at all ,” says Tetrick.” I’d much instead people have a box of carrots if they are concerned about health, without question .” But he says Merely can induce widely feed food a bit healthier, by reducing fat and cholesterol.
The history of GM foods is also a cautionary tale. Vonnie Estes, is now an independent food industry consultant but worked for Monsanto in the 1990 s, when the company was aroused about its what its new technology could do.
” Huge mistakes were attained in how that was brought to market ,” she says. GM food has been eaten by hundreds of millions of people since, but Estes says:” There is still a huge group of people who do not want GMOs in their food. 30 years ago we supposed people will get over this quickly- they didn’t .”
Some 62% of Americans said they were likely to try a food attained use technology. Illustration: Joe Magee
” There is a race to shelf, but not a race to suppose how we get to shelf properly ,” says Linda Eatherton, managing director at the Ketchum communication agency, who warns that how alt-protein companies communicate their production processes is” incredibly critical “.
” My biggest concern is people will rush to shelf and Mr and Mrs Consumer will say’ what the what ?’ How did they make that ?” But there are also grounds for optimism, she says: a recent Ketchum survey determined 62% of Americans are likely to try a food made use technology, rising to 71% among millennials.
Contrasting clean meat with factory farms is also crucial, says Friedrich.” People are eating meat today with their eyes squeezed shut. Nobody wants to even think about slaughterhouses ,” he says.” When we have the two products side by side, I don’t think it is going to be hard to persuade people to switch .”
The environmental benefits also seem clear from the contrasting inefficiency of conventional livestock production: it takes 23 calories of plant feed to produce one calorie of beef and farmers have to grow a whole cow , not just the valuable cuts of meat.
However , not many full impact analyses have been done on these new products. Just, whose methodology was independently certified, says its current mayo and cookie products cut carbon emissions by at least 25% and water use by 75%. Impossible Foods says its burger, which replaces the meat with the heaviest carbon hoofprint, cuts greenhouse gases by 87%.
Could this food could end up being dominated by a few tech giants? All these new foods are produced using techniques that are then patented by the companies to protect their investments, resulting some critics to suggest a creeping privatisation of livestock could occur.
This is rejected by the companies.” You can’t patent nature and we don’t want to lock up our products ,” says Elizondo, who points out that existing food companies like Kraft already have huge numbers of patents.” We would be totally open to licensing .”
The technological optimism of the young alt-protein sector is clear in the Bay Area, as is the hype. Backers, from
Bill Gates to meat giant Tyson, are betting the application of science to food can both save the world and make money doing it.
Whether it can really take down the meat industry, whether it can actually deliver safe, tasty, cheaper food on a large scale and with smaller environmental footprints- and so play a big part in saving the planet- will only be known in the coming months and years.